Emissions fell in the more developed countries, as policies, rising energy prices, and pressure to maintain economic competitiveness combined with the gradual decline and movement offshore of more carbon intensive industries. In the developing world, meanwhile, rapid growth and industrialization overwhelmed the significant improvement in energy efficiency that was possible due to the lower starting efficiency of industries there.

regionEuropean Union

These graphs show the changes in emissions, emissions drivers, and policy in the Industry sector in the EU


Emissions Industrial emissions and production in the EU27

Despite increasing output in the industrial sector, direct emissions fell, while electricity demand rose as the industrial sector shifted fuel consumption towards a less carbon intensive fuel mix.


    Emissions Drivers Energy efficiency index (Odex) in industry in the EU27

    Industrial energy efficiency improved across the board since 1990. There were no structural changes in industry that affected emissions intensity.


      Policy Emissions targets

      The EU ETS is the world’s first significant carbon market, and has been operating since 2005. Roughly 45% of the EU’s emissions—including industrial sectors—are covered by the market. In addition, the EU has targeted specific technologies through voluntary agreements and minimum energy performance standards (not shown).