Emissions fell in the more developed countries, as policies, rising energy prices, and pressure to maintain economic competitiveness combined with the gradual decline and movement offshore of more carbon intensive industries. In the developing world, meanwhile, rapid growth and industrialization overwhelmed the significant improvement in energy efficiency that was possible due to the lower starting efficiency of industries there.


These graphs show the changes in Industry policy in China, the EU, India, and the US


United States State incentive programs for industrial technology improvement

There was little cohesive industrial policy. Participation in the federal industrial assessment program declined, while state level programs grew.


    European Union Emissions targets

    The EU ETS is the world’s first significant carbon market, and has been operating since 2005. Roughly 45% of the EU’s emissions—including industrial sectors—are covered by the market. In addition, the EU has targeted specific technologies through voluntary agreements and minimum energy performance standards (not shown).


      India National energy conservation award scheme

      Indian policy towards industrial energy efficiency effectively began in the 2000s, which saw the creation of a number of programs targeting high-visibility energy efficiency programs, the largest of which, the National Conservation Award Scheme, has seen increasing participation over the last decade.


        China Phase out targets

        The government set specific targets for many large industries regarding how much capacity was to be phased out or retired.