Transport

THE ECONOMY HID UNDERLYING POLICY DIFFERENCES

Emissions peaked in 2007 in both the U.S. and Europe before high fuel prices and then recession curbed and reversed emissions growth. This general pattern overshadowed the European automobile fleet’s more fuel efficient starting point, thanks in part to significantly higher fuel taxes in Europe than in the U.S.

subjectPolicy

These graphs show the changes in land use policy in Brazil

 
 
 

United States Corporate average fuel economy standards


Fuel efficiency standards remained largely unchanged for over two decades. Only recently have standards for passenger vehicles been revisited.

     
     
     
     

    European Union Emissions intensity indices


    Starting from a comparatively high point, real fuel taxes were almost flat since the mid-1990s and steadily declined as a proportion of the final fuel price. Rising oil prices rather than government intervention therefore were the main increase to price signals for more efficient road transport. Shown for EU27, Norway, Switzerland, and Turkey.